Diagnosis and Treatment

Infection with HIV causes an acute but brief and nonspecific influenza-like retroviral syndrome that can include fever, malaise, lymphadenopathy, pharyngitis, arthritis, or skin rash. Most persons experience at least one symptom; however, some might be asymptomatic or have no recognition of illness (406–409). Acute infection transitions to a multiyear, chronic illness that progressively depletes CD4+ T lymphocytes crucial for maintenance of effective immune function. Ultimately, persons with untreated HIV infection experience symptomatic, life-threatening immunodeficiency (i.e., AIDS).

  • Screening Methods
  • Diagnostic considerations
  • Acute HIV infection
  • Treatment
  • Antiretroviral therapy
  • Western blot tests
  • Other HIV management considerations

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