Scientific Program

Conference Series Ltd invites all the participants across the globe to attend 6th World Congress on Control and Prevention of HIV/AIDS, STDs & STIs Hilton Zurich Airport, Zurich, Switzerland.

Day 2 :

Keynote Forum

Qingzhong Kong

Case Western Reserve University
USA

Keynote: Public health risks of animal prions
Conference Series STD-HIV AIDS 2018 International Conference Keynote Speaker Qingzhong Kong photo
Biography:

Qingzhong Kong has completed his PhD at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst and postdoctoral studies at Yale University. He is currently an Associate Professor of Pathology, Neurology and Regenerative Medicine, Associate Director, National Prion Disease Pathology Surveillance Center, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine. He has published over 50 original research papers in reputable journals (including Science Translational Medicine, Journal of Clinical Investigations, PNAS, Cell Reports, and Plant Cells) and has been serving as an Editorial Board Member on multiple scientific journals.

Abstract:

Prion diseases are a family of fatal transmissible neurodegenerative diseases that require the cellular prion protein for both prion agent replication and prion pathogenesis. Prions affect humans and many mammals. Common prion diseases include Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE or mad cow disease) in cattle, scrapie in sheep and goats and chronic wasting disease (CWD) in cervids (mule deer, white-tailed deer, American elk, moose, and reindeer). Huge efforts have been undertaken in many laboratories around the world to understand the public health risks posed by prions from animals ever since BSE was found in 1990’s to cause variant CJD (vCJD) in humans. A lot of progress has been made but many questions remain. The existence of multiple prion strains in one animal species and the discovery that these prion strains may have different zoonotic potentials add to the challenges. The author will attempt to summarize the history and the current understanding on prion zoonosis with an emphasis on BSE and CWD.

  • Modern and Unique Diagnostics
    Veterinary Infectious Diseases
    Advancements in Vaccines and Therapeutics
    HIV/AIDS
Location: Zurich, Switzerland
Speaker

Chair

Thierry Troussier

Head of UNESCO Chair Sexual Health & Human Rights Paris Diderot University
France

Speaker

Co-Chair

Hiroshi Ohrui

Yokohama University of Pharmacy
Japan

Speaker
Biography:

Hiroshi Ohrui received PhD Degree (1971) from The University of Tokyo. He joined Riken (1966), moved  to Tohoku University (1981) and to Yokohama University of Pharmacy (2006). He worked for Dr. J. J. Fox at Sloan-Kettering Institute for Cancer Research (1972-1973) and  Dr. J. G. Moffatt at Syntex Research (1973-1974). He received several awards including The Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry Award (2004), and Japan Academy Prize (2010). His research interests cover organic synthesis, chemical  biology and chiral discrimination.

Abstract:

4’-C-Ethynyl-2-fluoro-2’-deoxyadenosine (EFdA) is attracting much attention due to  its extremely excellent anti-HIV activity and  physiological properties.  EFdA  prevents the emergence of resistant HIV mutants,  is over 400 times more active than AZT and several orders of magnitude more active than  the other clinical reverse-transcriptase inhibitor y 2’, 3’-dideoxynucleoside drugs, very low toxic, very long acting,  and very useful for prophylaxis. EFdA is now under clinical trialsby Merck &  Co. as MK-8591. In the beginning,  a general  idea for the development of anti-viral modified nucleosides is presented, and  next,  the development of  EFdA is discussed and then  the current results of the clinical trials reported by Merck will be presented.  For the design of the modified nucleoside which could solve the critical problems that  the clinical drugs have (emergence of drug-resistant HIV mutants,  adverse effect by drugs, necessity to take  consirerble amount of drugs), four working hypotheses were proposed .  They are (1) the way to prevent the emergence of drug-resistant HIV mutants, (2) the way to decrease the toxicity of modified nucleosides, (3) the way to provide the modified nucleoside with stability to both enzymatic and acidic glycolysis for long acting, and (4) it is possible to develop selectively active to HIV and very low toxic to human based on the difference of the substrate selectivity between HIV and human nucleic acid polymerses (cf; the general idea). 4’-C-substituted-2’-deoxy nucleoside (4’SdN) was designed based on the hypotheses (1 and 3), and the additional  modification of 4’SdN was performed  based on the hypothesis (2). The details of the all  hypotheses will be discussed. To prevent the deamination of adenine by adenosine deaminase, a fluorine atom was introduced at the 2-position of adenine. Finally, EFdA, modified at the two position (2 and 4’) of the physiologic 2’-deoxyadenosine and has  extremely excellent anti-HIV activity,  was  successfully developed.

Speaker
Biography:

Eunwoo Yoo is an Infection Preventionist with extensive clinical experiences more than 12 years in the teaching hospital. She holds BS degree in Nursing from Yonsei University in South Korea and licensed registered nurse of 3 countries (South Korea, USA, and UAE) with the passion of nursing. Currently, she is working on Infection Prevention and Control Team for the government hospital in UAE runs by Seoul National University Hospital. As one of a key member of JCI accreditation in 2017, she has established comprehensive risk assessment and hospital-wide strategy through gap analysis. Her professional interests focus on healthcareassociated infection and achieve safe and clean environment by basic practices with high quality such as hand hygiene which is essential of infection prevention.

Abstract:

Background: Covert observation (CO) is a useful method as an effective and direct observation of hand hygiene (HH) compliance monitoring to overcome the Hawthorne effect. However, it is not clear whether the CO is effective in improving HH compliance. Accordingly, we conducted a study to determine the impact of covert observation on HH compliance. Method: We designed a prospective interventional study. Trained mystery shoppers monitored the entry and exit HH compliances in 3 different phases; the first CO (f-CO) in March and May 2017, CO combined with just-in-time coach (JITC) in July and October 2017, and second CO phases without JITC (s-CO) in March 2018. Overt observations (OO) were done simultaneously with above three phases by the infection control link personnel. We used Hand Hygiene Targeted Solutions Tool® for data collection. Results: Total of 10857 opportunities for HH were observed (3473 for f-CO, 2800 for JITC, and 1807 for s-OC) including 2777 opportunities for OO. The HH compliance rate of OO was 91.0% (2577/2777). HH compliance rate of f-CO was 34.3% (1192/3473). The rate was increased to 62.7% (1756/2800) by JITC (p=.00). HH compliance rate of s-CO was decreased to 57.5% (1039/1807) again but was still higher than the rate of f-CO (p=.00). HH rates on the exit opportunities were higher than the entry in all observations (89.7% (1257/1401) versus 92.3% (1270/1376) (p=.02), 31.5% versus 37.6%, 57.0% versus 69.0%, and 51.9% versus 62.9% for OO, f-CO, JITC, and s-CO respectively). Conclusions: CO method was useful for minimizing Hawthorne effect. However, CO was not effective for improving the HH compliance rate without the real-time feedback (JITC). Repeated JITC along with monitoring is needed to improve and maintain the good HH compliance.

Naser Shahabinejad

Kerman University of Medical Sciences
Iran

Title: Dengue fever serology in febrile patient in Southeast Iran
Speaker
Biography:

Naser Shahabinejad has expertise in diagnosis of emerging infectious diseases in southeast Iran. This approach is responsive to all searches to find emerging infectious disease cases in Iran.

Abstract:

Dengue fever is the most rapidly spreading mosquito-borne viral disease in the world. There is little information on dengue fever epidemiology in Iran. High prevalence of dengue fever in Pakistan bordering South Eastern of Iran emphasizes the need for paying more attention to monitoring of the disease in this region. The aim of this study was to study the dengue fever seropositivity among adult febrile patients in South East Iran. Dengue fever virus specific IgG antibodies were measured by a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in sera from 184 patients. All of sera were negative. The existence of dengue fever in eastern borders of Iran and tracking the virus vectors in the South East of Iran can be a treat for the circulation of the virus in Iran; however, we did not find any track of the seropositivity in this study.

Speaker
Biography:

Francis Oronsaye is a Medical laboratory Scientist by profession with a major in medical microbiology and M.Sc. degree in pharmaceutical microbiology and PhD in Medical Microbiology from the University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria. He has been lecturing in the University for the past thirty-six years. He has attended more than twenty international conferences where his research works were presented both in oral and poster presentations. The areas of his research encompasses  both medical microbiology, clinical chemistry, immunology, parasitology, environmental health, virology and molecular genetics amounting to wellovernforty  publications in Local, national and international peer reviewed journals. He is the international President of Africa Environment Pollution Prevention Eappo and Ngo with members across Africa and partners in Europe and USA.

Abstract:

Background: The emergence of new diseases of unknown aetiology is a common health challenge in developing countries. These diseases have defiled all known medications. They affect upper region of the body, particularly the face, neck and the jaw.  Methods; One hundred subjects compressing 20  children,50 adults  and 20 elderly  subjects who were discovered having bumps ‘as it is called’ on the face, scalp and  neck were randomly   recruited into  the study Their consent was obtained verbally. And we assured strict confidentiality: The subjects were given the lotion Orondfranklo (R) which was applied to the affected areas using sterile cotton wool swabs twice daily, preferably morning and evening. The lotion is currently being investigated for its toxicity in the Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria. The lotion is exclusively for external use. This lotion has been successfully tried for treating both superficial fungal and bacterial infections in Benin, Nigeria. Subject and Methods: One hundred subjects comprising 30 children, 50 adults and 20 elderly persons encountered during a free rural health campaign in three rural areas of Edo state, Nigeria who were suffering from various kinds of superficial skin infections of unknown ethology were randomly recruited into the study. Their consent was obtained verbally and was assured strict confidentiality, before the commencement of the study. Subjects had different types of skin rashes, swollen and irritation, the face neck region, the groin, upper and lower limbs were the sites mostly affected.  In some cases the skin looks cancerous. All the sites were treated with the lost rile cotton wool buds. Results: Satisfactory clinical response was achieved, after two weeks of treatment. (Plates 1 and 2) show one of the cases of the subjects. The most dramatic effect of the lotion is the fact that during its application, successful clinical response nature has not been put in place or may not be necessary Conclusion: This study represents the treatment of various skin lesions suffered by rural subjects in Edo state Nigeria.

Speaker
Biography:

Juan Pablo Loureiro obtained his title Doctor in Veterinary Medicine. He studied in La Plata National University, Argentina and obtained his specialist title in Reproduction at Cordoba National University, Argentina. His Undergraduate and Postgraduate studies were focused in biology, medicine and reproduction of marine mammals. He is part of the teaching staff at the La Plata National University. His main areas of teaching are animal anatomy and biology, medicine and conservation of marine fauna. He is also a Technical Director at the Rescue and Rehabilitation Center of Mundo Marino Foundation. This Center allows him to have direct contact with marine fauna and also to work in the diagnosis of tuberculosis among other emerging diseases. The monitoring of these diseases is one of the factors that allow controlling environmental health and taking the necessary precautions in each case.

Abstract:

The rehabilitation center of Mundo Marino´s Foundation attended 2008 marine mammals, founded on the northern coast of Buenos Aires province (36° 22'S/56° 44' W to 37° 15'S/56° 58 W) from 1987 to date. Among the most frequently attended marine mammals there were: 1315/2008 (65, 49%) South American sea lions (Arctocephalus australis); 113/2008 (6, 59%) sub-Antarctic sea lions (Arctocephalus tropicalis) and 159/2008 (9, 27%) South American fur seals (Otaria flavescens). In 1983, the necropsy of an A. australis showed macroscopic lesions compatible with tuberculosis and this finding was the starting of a research project on this disease. On February 27, 1989, an adult female A. australis, weighing 40 kg, was rescued with signs of dyspnea, weakness, permanent ventral recumbency and poor physical condition. Despite medical care the animal died. Necropsy showed lung and lymphatic lesions compatible with tuberculosis. Bacteriological cultures and molecular biology of samples were collected and we could identify a new member of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex: named Mycobacterium pinnipedii. The 2.17% of pinnipeds admitted into the rehabilitation center were diagnosed with tuberculosis. Isolates of mycobacteria strains from sea lions have shown to have in vitro sensitivity to the tuberculostatic drugs isoniazid, streptomycin, rifampin, ethambutol and paraminosalicylic acid. As the diagnosis of the diseases of the animals admitted to the rehabilitation center was being perfected, undescribed diseases were found. This situation makes it difficult to determine if they are emerging diseases or they already existed in nature.

Ferdoshe Akter

Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock
Bangladesh

Title: Surgical correction of ventral abdominal hernia in pigeon- 3
Speaker
Biography:

Ferdoshe Akter has expertise in evaluation and passion in improving the health and treatment of animals. Her open and contextual evaluation based on responsive constructivists creates new pathways for improving treatment technique. She has built this surgery expertise after years of experience in research, teaching hospital and administration both in hospital and education institutions.

Abstract:

Gossips of typical umbilical hernia are habitually described in ruminants but poetries are not available in ventral abdominal hernia in birds specially, in pigeon. Abdominal hernias have been characterized as a separation in the aponeurosis of the abdominal musculature on the ventral midline. The purpose of this case report is to give an overview about the diagnosis and surgical approach of ventral abdominal hernia in pigeons. Three male king breed pigeons of different ages (5 months – 10 months) and weights (250 g – 600 g) were presented to Upazila livestock office & veterinary hospital, Chakaria, Cox's Bazar from January 2016 to March 2018 with the common history of gradual swelling in the ventral abdominal region. Clinical and radiographic examination confirmed the ventral abdominal hernia and decided for surgical correction. With standard aseptic procedure and 1% lidocaine anaesthesia, coeliotomy was performed in all cases. Postoperatively antibiotic, cefixime was administered for 5 days at the dose rate of 30 mg/kg body weight and monitored until wound healing. The follow up study for one month revealed no complications. The result of this case study recommends that this approach can be used as a curative method for ventral abdominal hernia repair in pigeon. 

Speaker
Biography:

Mohammad Effat is a Professor of Microbiology and Immunology in The National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt. He was elected as a Chairperson of the department for the last three years. He has granted American pre-doctoral scholarship in 1990 working in Levine Laboratory, Cornell University on Basic Immunology techniques. He has got Doctoral Scholarship in Utrecht University by which he has finished his doctoral laboratory work on cloning and expression of PLD gene from Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. In 1999, he was awarded a Postdoctoral Fellowship for working on Candida among AIDs patients in CDC, Atlanta, GA. In 2003, he got Postdoctoral Fellowship in Free Berlin University for working on molecular interaction of enteric pathogens with intestinal mucosa. In 2009, he was chosen as a Visiting Professor of Microbiology and Immunology in Zimbabwe University.

Abstract:

It is not infrequent for every woman during her different stages of life to catch a vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and has to visit a gynecologist suffering from pelvic pain accompanied by itching, creamy white vaginal discharges, burning sensation, dyspareunia (if married) and redness and swelling of external genitalia. A 37 years old married woman used to intake a lot of antibacterial agents for her refractory periodontitis, has been frequently suffering from the above mentioned symptoms for three years. She received many types of commercially available antifungal agents without any improvement. She delivered two higher vaginal swabs for performing culture and sensitivity. Direct microscopic examination of the wet sample revealed yeast and filamentous forms of Candida. Gram staining showed violet round to oval colonies with budding. Direct cultivation on Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) revealed very small pale white colonies. CHROMagar plates streaked with the grown colonies from SDA showed two different colored colonies (green; G and rose; R). Germ tube test for G and R colonies was separately done and germ tube formation appeared only with G colonies. Rice extract agar test performed for G and R colonies separately revealed chlamydospores (terminal) formation only with G colonies. API 20 C AUX used for G and R colonies separately, showed Candida albicans (99.3%) and Candida krusei (85.8%) respectively. Upon carrying out in vitro antifungal susceptibility test, Candida krusei colonies were sensitive to nystatin and fluconazole however, Candida albicans colonies were sensitive to nystatin but resistant to fluconazole. This case of mixed infection of VVC was very difficult to be treated with the commercially available fluconazole alone and there is no available systemic nystatin.

Saroj Yadav

Chittagong Veterinary and Animals Science University
Bangladesh

Title: Molecular study of Cryptosporidium spp. from rat and mice
Speaker
Biography:

Saroj Yadav has expertise in evaluation and passion in improving new research. His open and contextual evaluation model creates new pathways for improving veterinary sector. He has built this model after years of experience in research, evaluation, teaching both in hospital and education institutions. He always tries to form new technique for better veterinary services.

Abstract:

Present study contracts with is a zoonotic intestinal protozoan parasite with public health importance. Research was aimed to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium in rats/mice and to assess the potential role of rodents as a source for human and animal cryptosporidiosis. A total of 49 faecal samples from field rats, tree rats, house mice and wetland rats were collected from Chittagong, Bangladesh during the period from February to July, 2017. Initial identification of Cryptosporidium spp., was carried out on stool samples by Ziehl-Neelsen (Z-N) acid fast staining method and found prevalence of 4.08%. DNA was extracted from Z-N positive and few other suspected samples using commercially available stool DNA isolation kit. Nested PCR was done to amplify 581 bp of 18S rRNA gene with the use of 1% agarose gel electrophoresis for PCR amplified products. Cryptosporidium spp., was confirmed in three samples by PCR with prevalence of 6.12%. The results of this research give an idea that rodents may act as reservoirs for zoonotic intestinal protozoan parasites and should be considered important to public health.

Speaker
Biography:

Anthony Wovisike Umetor is a PhD Fellow, part-time parliamentary monitor and a passionate community HIV and AIDS activist. He was a former Executive Director of Community HIV/AIDS Initiative South Africa (CHARISA). He holds Master’s and MPhil degrees in Sociology and HIV & AIDS Management respectively from University of South Africa.

Abstract:

Nigeria has the second highest estimated number of maternal deaths after India and is responsible for 30% of the global burden of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (MTCT). According to UNAIDS, MTCT is the main route of paediatric HIV infection. It accounts for over 90% of all paediatrics (children less than 15 years) infection and ranks amongst the highest number of new HIV infections in children in the world. A growing body of knowledge has mostly focused on the role of African church groups in hampering support to people living with HIV and AIDS and its contribution to HIV/AIDS-related stigma. This study is situated within the phenomenological research model which is centered on the lived experiences of those interviewed and employed a qualitative analysis that utilized semi-structured interviews conducted with healthcare staff and caregivers of HIV positive children (0-5 years) in Bori Zonal Hospital in Rivers State, Nigeria. The methodological finding reveals that Churches have the best well organized and recognized community networks in Nigerian communities and consequently potentially exercise a great influence over them. Their constant moralistic attitudes, reinforcement of conservative gender ideologies and wholesome integration of health and faith into the ministry is influencing their flock’s late uptake of HIV and AIDS-related services. Traditional birth attendant (TBA) is also exacerbating the delayed HIV testing of pregnant women in the rural communities in Nigeria. With no formal training (but generally respected because they are elderly community women), TBAs  play a vital part in maternal and child health by bridging the gap and support the delivery of babies in communities far removed from health facilities. By relying on child deliveries for sustenance, they see formal medical facilities as competitors.

Speaker
Biography:

Sarfraz Khan is currently working as assistant professor in Quaid - I Azam University, Paksitan. He has been publishing on various issues related to health, education, migration, religion and culture in Pakistan. He has a vast experience of teaching, research and supervision at university level. He has supervised more than ten theses on the issues related to HIV/AIDs in Pakistan and currently working on a research project related to this issue in Pakistan. His PhD thesis addressed the issues related to the role of international migration through the inflow of foreign remittances in the helping families back home in Pakistan in accessing health and educational facilities.

Abstract:

The main objective of the current research was to understand the level of stigmatization faced by HIV/AIDs positive patients in the twin cities (Islamabad and Rawalpindi) in Pakistan. The panacea of a smooth and comfortable society lies upon awareness and understanding of certain phenomenon; which forces others to discriminate people on the basis of stereotypes. In order to shape this strategy a primary area of focus is to provide the awareness regarding the death-defying diseases; like HIV/AIDS. The importance of providing information about this precarious disease is to eradicate the stigmatization done with HIV positive patients. It is very necessary to minimize this stigmatization as it hinders the process of treatment and proper care. The present study focused to understand the levels of stigmatization, its various dimensions and impacts on the HIV positive patients’ lives who were presently admitted in Islamabad and Rawalpindi hospitals in Pakistan. The current research was mainly conducted by using anthropological research methods such as: key informating, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. Purposive sampling technique was used for the selection of the respondents. The patients currently diagnosed with HIV/AIDs were selected from the two hospitals (Rehabilitation Center and Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences) in the twin cities. The results show that the majority of the HIV positive patients were stigmatized by their family members as well as the relatives and others which directly influence their health. The research could be helpful in devising policies regarding the inclusion of HIV/AIDS patients to the mainstream of the society as it indicated that in most of the cases these were the close family members and colleagues who stigmatized the patients.

Speaker
Biography:

Yetnayet Abebe has completed her Master’s degree in Public Health degree specialized in Reproductive Health from Jimma University, Ethiopia, East Africa in 2016. Her work experience on HIV/AIDS prevention and care projects and her social work study in combination with her clinical nursing background provides her an insight on the need to assess extra factors explaining why HIV positive women are poor in quality of life even though they are good in ART adherence.

Abstract:

Statement of the Problem: Studies across various countries indicate that health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) is affected by socio-economic variables, biological and psychological factors. Poor adherence to anti-retroviral therapy (ART) is also another factor for compromised HRQoL among PLWHA. The studies also indicate women with HIV/AIDS are of poorer QoL life than their men counterparts though they are generally more adherent to ART and the same disease stages. This study examined the health related quality of life and its associated factors among HIV positive women receiving anti-retroviral therapy in Jimma Town health facilities. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted. Consecutive sampling technique was employed to select HIV positive women who were on anti-retroviral therapy. Quality of life was measured using WHOQOL-BRIEF tool. Descriptive statistics, bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed. Associations between the quality of life and independents variables were reported. P-values <0.05 with 95% CI were set to determine statistical significance. Findings: The mean (±standard deviation) age of the respondents was 34.07(±8.76) years and 80.5% of them were urban dwellers. The proportion of women reporting good health related quality of life was found to be 46.5%. Specific to each domain, the mean (±standard deviation) of level of independence domain was the highest (14.08±3.07) followed by physical (13.46±2.95), social relationships (13.27±3.91), psychological (12.97±2.47), environmental (12.94±3.25)) and spiritual (12.39±2.84). Good social support (AOR: 4.99; 95% CI [2.88, 8.34]), higher wealth status (AOR: 1.85; 95%CI [1.02, 3.39]) and being on anti-retroviral therapy for shorter duration (AOR: 1.85; 95% CI [1.14, 3.03]) were independently associated with better overall health-related quality of life among the participants. Conclusions: The study demonstrated higher proportion of HIV positive women on ART had poor health related quality of life which was affected by wealth index, social support and duration on ART.

Speaker
Biography:

Zinat Mohebbi completed her PhD in Nursing from Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (SUMS) in Iran. She is the Faculty Member of SUMS and has the history of teaching for over 20 years. She published more than 50 papers in several journals and has been seving as an Editorial Board Member of International Journal of Community Based Nursing and Midwifery.

Abstract:

Objective & Aim: Surgical site infections (SSIs) are the most com¬mon health care associated infections in surgical patients and are serious surgical complications happening in approximately 2% of surgical pro¬cedures, although rates differ widely according to the type of procedure. Present study has been done to determine the incidence rate of infection in a clean contaminated wounds and its relationship with some risk factors. Methodology: Cross sectional study, in a convenience sample of 300 patients who underwent surgery classified as clean contaminated in a hospital of Iran. Samples were taken directly from the wound at the first dressing change to all the patients. They were studied to determine bacteria growth. Results: The rate of infection after a clean contaminated surgery was 53%. The most common gram positive microorganism was Staphylococcus aureus (22%), and among gram negative: Escherichia coli (26%), Klebsiella spp. (26%) and Pseudomonas spp. (25%). Significant correlation between the type of surgery and surgical site infection was found, it was not seen with the variables sex and surgical procedure. Conclusion: This study shows important problems regarding patient’s safety. Protocols should be reviewed to control infections.