Scientific Program

Conference Series Ltd invites all the participants across the globe to attend 7th World Congress on Control and Prevention of HIV/AIDS, STDs & STIs
Venue: Hotel Barceló Valencia- Valencia, Spain .

Day 1 :

Keynote Forum

Reza Nassiri

Michigan State University, USA

Keynote: Antimicrobial resistance in HIV patients
Conference Series STD-HIV AIDS 2019 International Conference Keynote Speaker Reza Nassiri photo
Biography:

Reza Nassiri is a former Associate Dean of Global Health at the Michigan State University. He also served as the MSU Director of Institute of International Health. He is currently Professor of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Professor of Family and Community Medicine and Lecturer in Global Health, Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine. He currently works on international public health issues relating to chronic diseases and has expertise in global health. He has made contributions in various fi elds of medical sciences including clinical investigation and health education. He had served as an Editorial Board Member for the journal of HIV and AIDS Review. He is currently on Editorial Board Member for AIDS Patient Care and STDs, J of AIDS Clin Res., and Int. J. of Global Health. He is the Founder of Michigan State University Osteopathic and Primary Health Clinic in Merida, Yucatan, Mexico. His research interests include Clinical Pharmacology of HIV/AIDS, Viral Pathogenesis, Antibiotic Resistance, Prevention and Control of Infectious Diseases, Tropical Medicine, Global health and Community-based Public Health Interventions.

Abstract:

According to the WHO, there is an estimated 36.7 million people living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). While antiretroviral drug resistance is a common genetic trait of HIV which oft en results in treatment failure, there is a paucity of information of the development of antibiotic resistance in HIV patients. Along with the CD4 cells, HIV targets other cells of the immune system resulting in immunodeficiency, and thus, such a weakened immune response increases opportunity for bacterial, fungal and other viral infections. Pathogens such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Salmonella, Hemophilus, Staph aureus, E. coli, Klebsiella and Pseudomonas are the risk pathogens that are encountered in HIV patients. However, the frequency of bacterial infections which are especially common in the lower CD4 counts, necessitate more administration of antibiotics either for prophylaxis or treatment purposes. One of the most clinically challenging threats is the production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) that impedes the antimicrobial treatment of infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae in HIV patients and is a serious threat to the practice of modern medicine. Antimicrobial resistance in general, is a global health concern within the scientifi c community. Failure of recognizing antibiotic resistance in HIV/ AIDS patients can further complicate the overall therapeutic strategy of the containment of HIV and can also lead to a more compromised quality of life in HIV patients. In summary, antibiotic resistance poses a threat to everyone, but people living with HIV/AIDS are at more signifi cant risk.

Keynote Forum

Tariq M Rana

University of California San Diego, USA

Keynote: Targeting Vif regulatory Axis: developing new AIDS therapies
Conference Series STD-HIV AIDS 2019 International Conference Keynote Speaker Tariq M Rana photo
Biography:

Tariq M Rana is a Scholar, Inventor, Entrepreneur and Multidisciplinary Scientist who is developing new therapies to treat infectious disease, cancer and immune disorders. He is a Professor and Chief of Genetics, V/C for Innovation in Therapeutics in the Department of Pediatrics at the University of California San Diego, School of Medicine, where his laboratory employs mechanisms and technologies of RNA, stem cells and chemical biology to discover new pathways implicated in human disease.
 

Abstract:

The human host is invaded by a wide range of microbial pathogens and has evolved a number of defensive mechanisms to survive these infections. In addition to adaptive immunity, it is becoming increasingly clear that innate immunity plays an important role in protecting host organisms from infections. One of the innate immune response mechanisms against viral infections involves a protein family, APOBEC3 (apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide 3). Th e APOBEC3 family of proteins can restrict replication of exogeneous retorviruses as well as Hepatitis B, a DNA virus that replicates through an RNA intermediate, and inhibit replication of retrotransposons. APOBEC3G (A3G) protein exhibits the most potent block to HIV-1 replication. To counteract host defense, HIV-1 expresses Vif protein that targets A3G for proteasomal degradation. Since HIV-1 Vif has no known cellular homologs, this protein represents an extremely attractive, yet unrealized, target for antiviral intervention. I will discuss the strategies to develop therapeutics that antagonize HIV-1 Vif function to inhibit HIV-1 replication. Further mechanistic investigation will be presented showing that Vif inhibitors’ function requires Vif-A3G interactions and restores A3G function. Th ese studies provide proof of principle that the HIV-1 Vif-A3G axis is a valid target for developing small molecule-based new therapies for AIDS or for enhancing innate immunity against viruses.
 

Conference Series STD-HIV AIDS 2019 International Conference Keynote Speaker Vsevolod A Zinserling photo
Biography:

Vsevolod A Zinserling  is pathologist working in the fi eld of infectology in Saint-Petersburg, Russia. His research is devoted to  viral, bacterial, fungal and mycoplasma lesions of brain, lung, liver, intestine, placenta on autopsy, clinical and experimental material. Investigations of pathomorphology of Infl uenza, HIV and its complications, infections due to herpes viruses, viral hepatitis, mixed infections of different localisation are of special interest. Prof. V.A. Zinserling is collaborating at Saint-Petersburg University, Center of infectious pathology at S.P. Botkin hospital for infectious diseases and department of pathomorphology in the Institute of Experimental medicine at National Medical Research Center named after V.A. Almazov. He is active member of European Society of Pathology (working groups infectious diseases, autopsy pathology and history of pathology).  Author of more than 400 publications.
 

Abstract:

HIV infection remains one of the most dangerous diseases and important causes of death. Numerous investigations are devoted to problems of epidemiology, molecular biology, treatment, psychology etc. Th e number of studies discussing the results of pathological studies is very limited. Having long term experience in HIV pathology, we can formulate the following items. Most important questions to be studied on the autopsies of the deceased from HIV-infection: exact list of secondary infections and tumors with specifi cation of their localization; evaluation of the effi  cacy of treatment; revealing of immediate death cause; collection of specimen for further investigations in order to study the mechanisms of the disease and its complications. Methods recommended for postmortem investigation are detailed histological study of all macroscopically changed and not changed organs with use of certain special staining; bacteriological and mycological investigation of all suspected lesions in order to clarify their etiology and certain properties of the pathogens; diff erent virological, molecular-biological methods and immunohistochemistry in order to study the localization of lesions due to HIV and other viruses and some of their properties. Among the most interesting, important and not suffi  ciently known changes we pay special attention to the brain. We have to distinguish direct and indirect lesions due to HIV virus itself, other pathogens (CMV, Toxoplasma, Cryptococcus, HSV, JCV, EBV fi rst of all) and other infl uences and follow up them in diff erent decades of epidemics. Some clinico-pathological correlations in perinatal HIV: viral load in pregnant women correlated with the depth of immunosuppression; women without antiretroviral treatment had more expressed grade of immunosuppression; frequency of secondary purulent infl ammation correlated with the grade of immunosuppression. Main probable pathogenic mechanisms of Placenta lesion in HIV: direct lesions of placenta macrophages (Hofb auer cells), endotheliocytes and decidual cells with development of typical changes of nuclei, leading role in infl ammatory reaction of CD14+ in comparison with CD68+ cells; disturbance of angiogenesis due to hyper expression of anti-angiogenic factor TGFβ; probable disturbances of syncytial-capillary membrane. Main questions for further investigations: clarifying incidence and etiology of placenta infl ammation and intrauterine infections in women with HIV; further studies of mechanisms of placenta lesions in HIV infected women; clinico-pathological correlations between morphological changes in placenta and outcome of pregnancy versus antiretroviral treatment; Clinico-pathological correlations between symptoms in children from HIV-infected mothers and post-mortem histology; studying impact of prenatal infections on development of children and morbidity of teenagers and adults. Question for the life-time pathological and cytological diagnostics are study of smears or liquid biopsies of cerebrospinal fl uid for evaluating mycobacterium, cryptococci and tumour cells, lymph node biopsies in order to identify the origin of their lesion, needle biopsies of other organs due to clinical necessity

  • Special Session 1
Location: Valencia, Spain

Session Introduction

Iva Christova

National Center of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, Bulgaria

Title: Vector borne infections in Bulgaria

Time : 11:50-12:30

Biography:

Iva Christova is a Professor of Microbiology at the National Center of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases (NCIPD), Sofi a, Bulgaria. She is the Deputy Director of NCIPD and Head of National reference vector-borne pathogens laboratory. She published more than 65 papers in reputed journals. Her research interest is focused on ecology, epidemiology, laboratory diagnosis and clinical manifestations of tick-borne and mosquito-borne pathogens. For her outstanding research, she was awarded Morrison Rogosa Award for 2003 from American Society for Microbiology and numerous Bulgarian awards, e.g. award for the most successful young scientist, award for the best research work and award for contribution in medicine. Her area of research interest includes vector-borne.

Abstract:

Located in Southeastern Europe, Bulgaria is an endemic country for Lyme borreliosis and Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) and is aff ected by West Nile virus (WNV). In addition, sporadic cases of Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) have been also reported. About 500 cases of Lyme borreliosis are detected annually in Bulgaria. Two peaks in the seasonal distribution of cases and more frequent presentation of neuroborreliosis than of Lyme arthritis appear to be characteristics of Lyme borreliosis in the country. With sporadic cases or small outbreaks, CCHF appeared every year. More than 1600 CCHF cases were offi  cially recorded since 1952. Genetic investigations showed that CCHF virus strains causing disease in the country belong to lineage Europe 1. However, two CCHF virus lineages, Europe 1 and Europe 2, are present in ticks in Bulgaria. CCHF seroprevalence among healthy population is 3.7%. In 2018, number of detected WNV human cases in Bulgaria exceeded the total number in the previous seven years, following the same trend in the other aff ected EU countries. WNV lineage 2 was confi rmed as a cause of the human cases. Overall WNV seroprevalence in human population in the country is 1.5%. Tick-borne encephalitis is very unusual. Only a few cases of TBE have been detected. Overall seroprevalence of 0.6% for TBE virus was found in humans. 

  • STDS | HIV | AIDS | Plant & Agricultural Virology | Medical Virology | General Virology | Current Focus in Virology Research
Location: Valencia, Spain

Chair

Francisco Jos Sanz Santaeufemia

Teaching Children Hospital Nio Jess, Spain

Co-Chair

Vsevolod A Zinserling

Saint-Petersburg University, Russia

Biography:

Francisco José Sanz Santaeufemia works as a pediatrician in one of the oldest children hospital in Western Europe located in Madrid. His expertise skills include General Pediatrics and children infectious diseases. Nowadays mycobacterial, parasitic or sexual transmitted infections are his preferred topics. 

Abstract:

Teenage is a turbulent time of life which, according to the WHO, covers the 10-20 years of age period. Physicals and psychological changes appear explosively which drives individuals to have increased risk of approaching to new dangerous behaviour as contact with drugs or inappropriate beginning of love relationships, In this topic they can suff er social (unwanted pregnancy) or medical stigmas (sexual transmitted diseases STD). Overall incidence of STD has uploaded in recent years depending on diff erent factors present in adolescents as minimization of risk, abuse of alcohol/drugs or avoids anticonception methods in sexual relations. Diff erent STD´s are classifi ed in four groups: Urethritis-cervicitis, genital ulcers, leukorrhea and anogenital warts; with multiple microorganisms implicated in all of them. Most of STD´s are asymptomatic, so active search and a high index of suspicion is mandatory to aff ord this growing problem in young people. Moreover, we will make general screening in selected people. In this paper we will make a brief summary of each STD explaining its signs, diagnosis test and recommended therapy insisting into the need of early detection, correct therapy and investigation of sexual partners for cutting epidemic expansion. Depending on the type of lesion (ulcer, vaginal discharge, urethral secretion…) will suspect distinct bacteria and until establishing the proper diagnosis we will treat the adolescent with an empiric therapy covering all possible microorganisms able to produce this symptoms. Aft er treatment we will make sure a new appointment for confi rming clinical recovery, asking for other sexual contacts and their study. Finally, we will give some recommendations as a Decalogue for using at the offi  ce in the directed interview with this kind of young people, neither children nor adults.
 

Biography:

Yury A Tyulenev has completed his Graduation at Moscow State Academy of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnology named after K I Skryabin in 2009; PhD from The Institute of Virology named after D.I. Ivanovsky, Moscow, Russia in 2013 and his Postdoctoral studies from Calgary University, Calgary, Canada. Since 2017, he has been working on sexually transmitted infections epidemiology among MSM. 

Abstract:

Background: Th ere is a strong association between HIV-infection and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in MSM all over the world. Social stigma leads to further expansion of various STIs among MSM in Russia. Yet studies are lacking on the prevalence of sexually transmitted pathogens among MSM attending medical clinics for a routine medical checkup in the country. Th erefore, the goal of our research is to determine the prevalence of gonorrhea, chlamydial infection, M. genitalium-infection, and syphilis among HIV-positive MSM.
Methods: 381 MSM living with HIV were recruited through clinics and non-governmental organizations. To evaluate the prevalence of STIs three probes from each patient were collected: fi rst void urine (FVU), pharyngeal and rectal swabs (PS and RS). Th e samples were tested for DNA of N. gonorrhoeae, C. trachomatis, M. genitalium, Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) I and II, T. pallidum in PCR.
Results: Th e prevalence of STDs in FVU: N. gonorrhoeae-1.6% (6/381), C. trachomatis-3.7% (14/381), M. genitalium-1.3% (5/381), T. pallidum-0.5% (2/381). In RS: N. gonorrhoeae-11.3% (43/381), C. trachomatis-18.4% (70/381), M. genitalium-4.7% (18/381), T. pallidum-3.4% (13/381). In PS: N. gonorrhoeae-6.8% (26/381), C. trachomatis-6.8% (26/381), M. genitalium-0.8% (3/381) and T. pallidum-4.2% (16/381).
Conclusions: Th e prevalence of STIs was high among HIV-positive MSM. Extragenital testing for STIs in MSM is a fi rst priority issue as STD-cases were found in RS and PS more frequently (p=0.001). Th ere is a strong need to promote an education campaign about sexual risk behavior that can prevent new cases of infection.

Biography:

Faiza A Fattouh has completed her PhD at Purdue University, USA. She is currently an Emeritus Professor of Virology at Alexandria University. She has served as a Head of the Botany and Microbiology Department of the Faculty of Science, Alexandria-University, Egypt. She has over 35 publications in National and International reputable journals. She has acted as Principle Investigator in over 10 International Cooperative projects in the field of Plant Virology. She is on the Editorial Board and served as Reviewer to several scientific publications. Her research interest includes Identification, molecular characterization and phylogenetic studies on plant viruses of economically important hosts in Egypt. 

Abstract:

Potato is the second most important food crop in Egypt in terms of yield and cash value. Virus infection is a major factor which aff ects production and tuber quality. Detection of several different potato viruses has been reported in some studies; yet, few limited studies addressed the genetic characterization of such viruses. PVY is a major virus affecting potato and is of worldwide distribution. Th e aim of this work is to elucidate more information on PVY genetic diversity in Egypt. Following several surveys for the detection of major viruses affecting potato in different geographic governorates, some PVY isolates were subjected to molecular characterization by means of immunocapture RT-PCR and also full genome sequencing. Multiple recombinant types of PVY were distinguished. At least 3 recombinant strains previously associated with potato tuber necrotic ringspot disease (PTNRD), including a novel recombinant were identified. These findings suggest the presence of PTNRD-inducing virus strains infecting potato. 

Biography:

Khaled A Habeb has experience in teaching and supervision on both undergraduate and post graduate students. He has taught different subjects belonging to microbiology such as medical microbiology, clinical mycology, microbial toxins and microbial physiology. He has experience in evaluation and improving of probiotics application. 

Abstract:

Noroviruses (NoVs) are the most commonly recognized foodborne viral infection and second only to Rotavirus (RV) as a cause of severe diarrhea in children. Th e high burden of infection is because of their stability in the extreme environment condition, diversity of strains and low infectious dose ranging between 10-100 virus particles which are enough to infect individual. Nucleotide sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the junction of open reading frame one (ORF1) and the open reading frame two (ORF2) and fragments of 60/81 (74.07%) positive samples results found that the appearance of fi ve genotypes: GGII.4, GGII.2, GGII.17, GGI, GGI.3 ACCESSION KU291998.1; KU292999.1; KU292001.1: ACCESSION KU292002.1; KU292003.1; KU292004.1; KU292005.1; KU744839.1. Th e NVGII.4 was the most dominant strain with frequency percentage 61.6% and the higher frequency percentage 50% was belongs to the recombinant. It has been suggested that recombination could be an important mechanism by which GII.4 remains persistent in human population.
 

Biography:

Abstract:

An estimate of 36.9 million people globally was living with HIV in 2017. Out of which 21.7 million people were accessing antiretroviral therapy in 2017. Furthermore, 1.8 million people became newly infected with HIV in 2017. Moreover 940,000 people died from AIDS-related illnesses in 2017. About 77.3 million people have become infected with HIV since the start of the epidemic and 35.4 million people have died from AIDS-related illnesses since the start of the epidemic. Th e most frequent route of HIV transmission is sexual contacts. Th e majority of all infections are transmitted through heterosexual contacts. HIV particularly affects adolescents and young people (15 to 24 years old). Men who have sex with men are at a higher risk of HIV transmission if there is no use of protection as it may involve anal sex. Sex between men is stigmatized, offi cially denied and criminalized in various parts of the world. Sex workers may be stigmatized in the same way as MSM, they usually have multiple sexual partners. HIV prevalence amongst prisoners is between 2 and 50 times those of general adult populations. Prisons are at highrisk environment for HIV transmission with drug use, and needle sharing, tattooing with homemade and unsterile equipment and high-risk sex and rape. Every year, over 500 million people acquire one of the following four sexually transmitted diseases (STIs): chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis or trichomonas. HIV-related stigma and discrimination aff ect a pregnant woman's decision to enroll in PMTCT programs and interrupt adherence to treatment and retention in care. It has been estimated that over 50 percent of vertical HIV transmissions from mother-to-child globally, can be attributed to the cumulative eff ect of stigma when accessing PMTCT services

Biography:

Paulo Antonio Rodrigues Gouveia work in the Government of the State of Tocantins in 1990. He worked as a doctor at the Regional Hospital of Araguaína till 2007. he worked as a volunteering to help in medical attention in 2011. Currently he works as a doctor in the Government of the State of Tocantins since 2015). Laboratory Experience: Scientific expert laboratory technician at the Hospital of Diseases and Tropical Diseases (HDT), Brazil - State of Tocantins 

Abstract:

This study aims to analyze the therapeutic use of Guazulma ulmifolia Lam. extract as an AIDS treatment, describing the management of treatment performed in a clinical report. Th is work was a literature review. The case reported was a 35-year-old Mozambican, diagnosed with HIV virus in 2008 in March of 2017 she started using Guazulma ulmifolia Lam. extract for 30 days, and has since received successive negative HIV test results. It was concluded that the efficacy of Guazulma has been increasingly proven for the treatment of AIDS, with the advantages being a natural remedy, without any side effects and there is no ethical-moral impediment to be applied in infected population. 

Biography:

Abstract:

Eswatini is a small landlocked country in the world with 27.4% of adults living with HIV. In 2017, 7,000 adults were newly infected with HIV and 3,500 people died of an AIDS related illness. Over the last decade Eswatini has made significant progress on its HIV epidemic. HIV prevalence is stabilizing and the number of new infections among adults has newly halved since 2011, an achievement largely made possible and by rapidly scaling up the number of people accessing antiretroviral treatment. At 85%, it has one of the highest rates of antiretroviral treatment coverage in Sub-Saharan Africa, and it has also increased its own domestic investment and funding for the HIV response. Nevertheless, the huge amount of people living with HIV in Eswatini means it is still the country’s biggest public health concern. According to 2015 estimates, life expectancy in the country is 57 years for men and 61 years for women. Mbabane government hospital is the biggest hospital in Eswatini with the highest number of patients with HIV. Its laboratories are working hard for supporting patients with HIV. Medical laboratories have always played an essential role in determining clinical decisions and providing clinicians with information that assists in the prevention, diagnosis, treatment and management of diseases in the developed world. Mbabane central laboratory is a referral laboratory operating at Mbabane government hospital under ministry of health in Eswatini. Th e central laboratory provide service routinely to all facilities with limited or without the capacity to perform simple or complex tests, it also serve a national back up for laboratory services. Th e scope of testing includes: Serology, Immunochemistry, Chemistry and Flowcytometry. Th e central laboratory runs about 45,356 tests in a year with an average of 3,779 tests per month. Flowcytometry is a biophysical technology in cells counting, cells sorting, biomarkers detection, by suspending them in the stream of fl uids and passing them to the electronically detection. It is the department which is monitoring patients with HIV by counting their CD4 before starting the antiretroviral treatment or when they are under treatment. Th is department can receive more than 2,500 samples of blood per month for CD4 Count or more than 30,000 samples per year. And all the results are sent to the clinicians for a good care of patients with HIV. 

Kiyemba Ronald

Kitanda Community-based Organization/Healthcare, Uganda

Title: Poverty increased the spread of HIV/AIDS and others in Uganda
Biography:

Kiyemba Ronald Coach for Uganda National cycling, holding a Degree in Sports Science. President, KITANDA CARE for HIV/AIDS & UTI infections control. Company Owner, Bike 2 Bike tours (U) LTD. 

Abstract:

In Uganda, research made in 2016 show that 1.4 million people live with HIV and other related UTI. 52000 people get infected newly. 28,000 die of HIV/AIDS and other related illness. Research has shown that HIV is one of the important outcomes of poverty in Uganda having more than 35% of Ugandans living below poverty line of 1US$ daily. As a result of this, people especially women indulge into risky behaviour such as commercial sex which can provide them with basic survival resources for themselves and their dependents. Commonest behaviour that has increased the spread of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections include: Cultural poverty that results in forced teenage marriages by their parents for material gain. Women do commercial sexual transaction to raise basic needs and most of them being widows left  alone with children who need feeding, hospital bills etc. House helps being seduced by their bosses, employers demanding for sex in exchange for jobs. Institution bosses abusing young less privileged girls for sex in exchange for admissions and also teachers demanding for sex in exchange for marks Muslim culture of polygamy which has increased the risk of multiple cross infections. Much as information through health education and counseling about the risks has reached the poor, it sometimes seems irrelevant given the reality of their poor standards of living. Th erefore, luck of incentive resources has made it diffi  cult for the poor communities to adapt to the recommend behaviour. Government should provide employment opportunities within the communities, restrictions should be put on alcohol and observed within the local communities, health and education care.

  • Special Session 2
Location: Valencia, Spain

Session Introduction

Mohammad Mir

Western University of Health Sciences, USA

Title: Hantavirus RdRp requires a host cell factor for Cap Snatching
Biography:

Mohammad Mir did his PhD from Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Department of Atomic Energy of India in 2003. He then Moved to University of New Mexico for his Postdoctoral training in Virology, where he worked with hemorrhagic fever viruses. Hea then joined the University of Kansas, School of Medicine as Assistant Professor in Virology in the year 2009. In 2015, he joined the Western University of Health Sciences, California, as Associate Professor in Virology. His research program at Western University is focused on replication and therapeutic intervention of emerging negative strand RNA viruses

Abstract:

The hantavirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) snatches 5' capped mRNA fragments from the host cell transcripts and uses them as primers to initiate transcription and replication of the viral genome in the cytoplasm of infected cells. Hantavirus nucleocapsid protein (N protein) binds to the 5' caps of host cell mRNA and protects them from the attack of cellular decapping machinery. N protein rescues long capped mRNA fragments in cellular P bodies that are later processed by an unknown mechanism to generate 10- to 14-nucleotide-long capped RNA primers with a 3' G residue. Hantavirus RdRp has an N-terminal endonuclease domain and a C-terminal uncharacterized domain that harbors a binding site for the N protein. The purified endonuclease domain of RdRp nonspecifi cally degraded RNA in vitro. It is puzzling how such nonspecifi c endonuclease activity generates primers of appropriate length and specificity during cap snatching. We fused the N-terminal endonuclease domain with the C-terminal uncharacterized domain of the RdRp. The resulting NC mutant, with the assistance of N protein, generated capped primers of appropriate length and specifi city from a test mRNA in cells. Bacterially expressed and purifi ed NC mutant and N protein required further incubation with the lysates of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) for the specific endonucleolytic cleavage of a test mRNA to generate capped primers of appropriate length and defined 3' terminus in vitro. Our results suggest that an unknown host cell factor facilitates the interaction between N protein and NC mutant and brings the N protein-bound capped RNA fragments in close proximity to the endonuclease domain of the RdRp for specific cleavage at a precise length from the 5' cap. These studies provide critical insights into the cap-snatching mechanism of cytoplasmic viruses and have revealed potential new targets for their therapeutic intervention.